Many Uses: The 100 Most-Frequent Words in Written English

This list illustrates the multiple uses of words in the core vocabulary, especially the most frequent 100 words in written English. What these many uses mean for reading development is explained at the TextProject Topics page for Core Vocabulary.

Possible Texts for Fluency Development

In addition to QuickReads, this is a short list of texts that have been identified by teachers as helpful in developing fluency.

NAEP 1994 Fluency Study: Reference to the Large-Scale National Study on Children’s Fluency Conducted as Part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress

Pinnell, G. S., Pikulski, J. J., Wixson, K. K., Campbell, J. R., Gough, P. B., & Beatty, A. S. (1995). Listening to children read aloud: Data from NAEP’s integrated reading performance record (IRPR) at grade 4. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education; Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.


WordZones™ for 4,000 Simple Word Families

We have renamed a version of our popular WordZones™ for 5,586 words list to WordZones™ for 4,000 Simple Word Families.  The list has not changed.  Only the name has been changed to highlight the number of word families the 5,586 most frequent words have been sorted into.

Background Reading: Research on the Internet

In this list developed for UCSIR 2005, seven online reading sources are provided for each of the topics of fluency and vocabulary. For specialists in adolescent readers, two additional sources are provided. Click on the links in the PDF (or cut-and-paste to your browser’s address bar) to view the sources online.

Text Elements by Task (TExT) Model

Summary of publications on the TExT Model, suitable for printing.

Strategic Vocabulary Selection: Choosing Words From Narrative & Informational Texts

Presented at the Fall Reading First Research Symposium, “Taking the Next Steps Based on Reading Research,” November 15–16, 2007

Promoting Vocabulary Development in Grades 4 Through 12: A Comprehensive Approach

Handout from Elfrieda H. Hiebert’s presentation at Institute 5, “Promoting Vocabulary Development in Grades 4 through 12: A Comprehensive Approach,” at IRA 2008, May 4, 2008 in Atlanta, GA.

The Comprehension Connection: Fluency

Handout from Elfrieda H. Hiebert’s presentation at the Pearson Education Luncheon at IRA 2008, May 7, 2008 in Atlanta, GA.

Increasing the Comprehension of English Language Learners: The Fluency/Vocabulary Connection

This is Freddy’s handout from her presentation at the Best Practices for ELLs: Building Academic Success conference on June 5, 2008. This conference was hosted by New York Department of Education, the Office of English Language Learners.

Academic Word List

A list of 343 words that appear on both AWL list developed by Coxhead (2000) and the 4,000 Simple Word Families.

Familiar and Concrete Word List: Animals

A list of 68 animal-related words that appears in the 4,000 Simple Word Families.

TextProject Word Pictures for Half-Chicken

A special edition of TextProject Word Pictures highlighting hard words in Half-Chicken in StoryTown anthology, Grade 3, Unit 4.

Defining Close Reading

Dr. Tim Shanahan's definition of close reading.

Building Capacity in Low-Performing Readers: Results of two months of Reading Plus® practice

A summary of an ongoing study with Reading Plus.

Hiebert, E.H., Spichtig, A., & Bender, R. (2013). Building capacity in low-performing readers: Results of two months of Plus® practice. Reading Plus Research Brief, 2(1).


Great, Free Stuff From TextProject: Resources for Knowledge, Vocabulary & Automaticity

This publication outlines the FREE resources that TextProject offers on teaching knowledge, vocabulary, and automaticity.